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Benjamin Bloom's Taxonomy of Educational Objectives

Editorial Team
theteacher.in
In 1956, Benjamin Bloom led a group of educational psychologists. Stemming from the results of their research emerged a classification of thinking behaviours believed to be important in the learning process. Bloom postulated that abilities could be measured along a continuum running from simple to complex. The taxonomy of educational objectives is comprised of six levels, namely: knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis, and evaluation.
 
The table given below gives a brief explanation about the six levels of the taxonomy.  
Level Keywords
1. Knowledge
 
  • Observe and recall information
  • Arrange, define, describe, match, order, memorize, name, note, repeat, questions (Who? What? When? Where?).
2. Comprehension
 
  • Understand information, grasp meaning
  • Alter, change, classify, define in your own words, discuss, explain, extend, give examples, translate, etc.
3. Application
 
  • Use information, use methods
  • Apply, calculate, compute, construct, operate, practice, write an example question (how many? Which? What is?).
4. Analysis
 
  • See patterns, organise parts
  • Analyse, appraise, categorise, compare, conclude, contrast, criticize, diagnose, differentiate, etc.
5. Synthesis
 
  • Use old ideas to create new ones
  • Assemble, compile, compose, create, improve, synthesize, what if, etc. Questions (How can we improve? What would happen if? How can we solve?).
6. Evaluation
  • Compare and discriminate ideas
  • Appraise, argue, choose, certify, criticize, decide, deduce, defend, discriminate, estimate, evaluate, recommend, etc.
Bloom's taxonomy of educational objectives may be interesting for professors and instructors. They may conceive the educational activities and present information according to the six levels expressed by Bloom. Several of these activities may be taken into consideration when designing a course in a new learning environment.

Level

Activities

1. Knowledge

Memorising information, defining techniques, etc.

2. Comprehension

Understanding an article with the objective of providing a summary

3. Application

Using the knowledge of the learner to apply it to concrete situations (real life)

4. Analysis

Asking a learner to dissect a subject, explain how everything fits together

5. Synthesis

Placing the pieces of a subject back together but in a novel way by gathering information from several sources

6. Evaluation

Judging the value of a subject for a specific purpose


 

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